Fauna and Flora
The island of Ithaki is located in the vegetation zone of Quercetalia ilicis.
In particular we show the sub-area Quercion ilicis which distinguished as the growth area Adrachno - Quercetum ilicis occupying the lower areas and the growth area Orno - Quercetum ilicis occupying the highest area of Quercion ilicis.
On the ridges and southern slopes appear Erica manipuliflora (chamoreiki) and Erica arborea (tree heath). In relatively better environmental positions dominate the Arbutus unedo (strawberry tree), Calycotome villosa (aspalathos), Spartium sp.p. (Mats), etc.
In the coastal, hilly and sub-mountainous area of the evmesogeiaki vegetation zone, we find thermophilic species such as Pistacia lentinscus (lentisk), Olea europaea var. sylvestris (wild olive), Calycotome villosa (aspalathos), etc. Throughout the island we see a number of drought-resistant conifers as Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinea, Pinus brutia, Cupressus sempervirens Juniperus macrocarpa, etc.
Species diversity and population sizes are determined by climate and terrain conditions and the diversity of the vegetation structure.
The lack of water and limited food are the main factors limiting the population of the species. I.e. studies show that water shortages are the most important factor reducing the population of partridges.
At the same time the gradual abandonment of agricultural crops has led to a dramatic decline in the population of species that feed on them. Problems were also created during periods of pesticide spraying from the air.